Liberal Arts in Russia EN-rus logo
russian flagRussian
ISSN 2305-8420 (Print)
ISSN 2312-6442 (Online)
Current Issue

Metaphor as a means of conceptualization of the surrounding world (based on the examples of English, Russian, and French verbs of receiving and giving)

Liberal Arts in Russia. 2018. Vol. 7. No. 5. Pp. 409-423.
Get the full text (Russian)
Permiakova E. G.
Ural State University for Railway Transport
66 Kolmogorov Street, 620034 Ekaterinburg, Russia
Ponomarenko V. S.
Ural State University for Railway Transport
66 Kolmogorov Street, 620034 Ekaterinburg, Russia


The article is devoted to the study of metaphor in the conceptual system of native-speakers of different languages. The authors have studied a number of metaphorical consequences under which the situations of receiving and giving are conceptualized. The objects of study are English, Russian, and French verbs with similar metaphorical projections discovered by the contextual analysis. According to the results of the research, it is noted that the metaphor of container is quite common in all three languages because it is associated with a personal and inherent possession. Other verbal metaphors represent dispossessing an object from the container as a long and monotonous, or more intensive and forcible actions compared with milking, gutting, cutting, or chopping off. The personality of the thief is criticized by means of metaphor and compared with a bird and a small animal. As for the metaphor of money, it can be represented differently in three languages, for example, like the sparkles of water droplets splashed, or even by a metaphor of rubbish. Metaphorical transfers in the meanings of verbs can be common or unique in three languages. Metaphors are created in the cognitive system of native speakers; it gives an opportunity to understand personal motives in certain situations, to analyze the process of conceptualization. Thus, the study of the conceptual metaphor is always topical and it is a source for enriching any research by new lexical material.


  • • conceptual metaphor
  • • conceptual system
  • • categorization
  • • receiving
  • • giving
  • • verbal semantics


  1. Boldyrev N. N. Funktsional'naya kategorizatsiya angliiskogo glagola [Functional categorization of the English verb]. 2 ed. Moscow: LIBROKOM, 2009. Pp. 144.
  2. Vikislovar'. URL:
  3. Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metafory, kotorymi my zhivem [Metaphors we live by]. Moscow: Editorial URSS, 2004. Pp. 256.
  4. Le Goff J., Truong N. Istoriya tela v srednie veka [A history of the body in the Middle Ages]. Moscow: TEKST, 2008. URL:
  5. Makarova I. Yu. Kognitivnye osnovy formirovaniya znachenii ot-substantivnykh glagolov v sovremennom angliiskom yazyke: dis. ... kand. filol. nauk. Tambov, 2007. Pp. 221.
  6. Natsional'nyi korpus angliiskogo yazyka. URL:
  7. Natsional'nyi korpus russkogo yazyka. URL:
  8. Natsional'nyi korpus sovremennogo amerikanskogo angliiskogo. URL:
  9. Permyakova E. G. Glagol'noe taksonomicheskoe modelirovanie kontsepta "POLUChENIE" v angliiskom i russkom yazykakh: dis. ... kand. filol. nauk. Ekaterinburg, 2017.
  10. Permyakova E. G., Ponomarenko V. S. Vestnik magistratury. 2017. No. 6-2(69). Pp. 45-47.
  11. Permyakova E. G. Kognitivnye issledovaniya yazyka. 2017. No. 29. Pp. 361-368.
  12. Russkii semanticheskii slovar' [Russian semantic dictionary]. Ed. N. Yu. Shvedovoi. Moscow: Azbukovnik, 1998. URL:
  13. Slovar' russkogo yazyka [Dictionary of the Russian language]. V 4-kh t.. Ed. A. P. Evgen'evoi. 2 ed. Moscow: Russkii yazyk, 1981-1984. URL:
  14. Slovar' sinonimov i skhodnykh po smyslu vyrazhenii. URL:
  15. Tolkovyi slovar'. URL:
  16. Chudinov A. P. Metaforicheskaya mozaika v sovremennoi politicheskoi kommunikatsii [Metaphorical mosaic in modern political communication]. Ekaterinburg: Ural. gos. ped. un-t., 2003. Pp. 248.
  17. Cambridge English Dictionary. URL:
  18. Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales. URL:
  19. Larousse Dictionnaires de français. URL:
  20. Leipzig University Corpora Collection. URL:
  21. Longman English Dictionary. URL:
  22. Macmillan English Dictionary. URL:
  23. Online Etymology Dictionary. URL:
  24. Oxford English Dictionary. URL:
  25. Wiktionnaire. URL: