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The functional role of science in the context of technological projects of the twentieth century

Liberal Arts in Russia. 2015. Vol. 4. No. 5. Pp. 321-338.
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Lipkin A. I.
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
9 Institutskii Ln., 141707 Dolgoprudny, Russia
Fedorov V. S.
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
9 Institutskii Ln., 141707 Dolgoprudny, Russia


Our aim is to point out the role of scientific research in contemporary technological developments. Interactions between science and technology in the context of application-driven research projects of the 20th century are discussed. We define science and technology as two separate domains, and provide elementary models for their interaction by the means of applied and engineering sciences. These elementary models constitute linear and cascade models of science-technology interaction. We apply these elementary models for the purpose of further methodological analysis of Soviet nuclear warfare project. The special role of organization and management in research and development activities is being emphasized. The new science-technology interaction model is devised in the course of nuclear project. This new interaction model is referred as non-linear or spiral. The model is seen as more collaborative and risk aware than linear and cascade interaction models present in twentieth century. The conclusion is the new model was of great impact to modern social forms in which research is carried out in the present.


  • • nuclear project
  • • linear model
  • • cascade model
  • • philosophy of science
  • • philosophy of technology
  • • history of science
  • • methodology of science
  • • organization of science


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