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Linguistic characteristics and significance of the Kyakhta language

Liberal Arts in Russia. 2022. Vol. 11. No. 6. Pp. 435-443.
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Gong Lei
Southwest Petroleum University
8 Xindu Avenue, 610500 Chengdu, Sichuan, China
Dolgopolova M. V.
M. Akmulla Bashkir State Pedagogical University
3a Oktyabrskoi Revolutsii Street, 450008 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia
Kasymova O. P.
Ufa University of Science and Technologies
32 Zaki Validi Street, 450076 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia


The linguistic characteristics and significance of the Kyakhta language, which seems to be the most typical result of Russian-Chinese language contact, are investigated. The main results of the study: 1. The evolution of the Kyakhta region and the factors influencing it were determined: The Kyakhta region was approved after the conclusion of the “Kyakhta Treaty” in 1727. In the XVIII-XX centuries, this area was the most important center of border trade between Russia and China. The prosperity of the Kyakhta region continued until 1921, when the “Maimachen War” began between the USSR, Mongolia and China. Thus, the development of the area was influenced by political, geographical, historical and social factors; The reasons for the formation of the Kyakhta language and its linguistic characteristics are revealed: for the first time, the Kyakhta language began to be used by Chinese merchants, and gradually spread throughout the region and for everyone. The Kyakhta pidgin arose as a result of the need for communication between representatives of the Russian and Chinese people participating in trade and interacting in everyday and business life. The Kyakhta language is essentially a variety of the Russian language, heavily influenced by the Chinese and Mongolian languages. From the point of view of phonetics, in addition to individual sinicized alternations, it mainly has the syllabism of the Chinese language and a fixed stress. From the point of view of grammar, it is analytical like the Chinese language, there are few morphological changes in it, parts of speech are formed under the influence of Chinese and Mongolian languages. From the point of view of vocabulary, it included not only borrowed words from Russian and Chinese, but also tracing words, as well as derivational means of these languages, which reflects the linguistic cultures of the donor languages. From the point of view of spelling, the absence of the letter ъ and the instability of its written and literary forms are noted; 3. The significance of the Kyakhta language is determined: in a theoretical aspect, its study enriches Russian philology, provides reference assistance in the study of historical, economic, social, geographical and interdisciplinary sciences. In a practical aspect, he promoted communication and mutual understanding between the Russian and Chinese peoples and ensured Russian-Chinese business and cultural interaction. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that the linguistic characteristics of the Kyakhta language are systematically structured in it. Also, using traditional methods, an analysis of the influence of the Mongolian language as an intermediary language is introduced into the study of Russian-Chinese bilingual contact in order to more fully and deeply study the Kyakhta language. The purpose of the article is to describe the status of Russian-Chinese language contacts in the XVIII-XX centuries, using the relevant linguistic data, as well as to provide reference materials for modern interdisciplinary research and to predict the directions and prospects of modern Russian-Chinese language contacts.


  • • Kyakhta language
  • • language contacts
  • • the growth of analyticism in language
  • • pidgin


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