Liberal Arts in Russia EN-rus logo
russian flagRussian
ISSN 2305-8420 (Print)
ISSN 2312-6442 (Online)
Current Issue

On the theory of human action

Liberal Arts in Russia. 2019. Vol. 8. No. 4. Pp. 237-245.
Get the full text (Russian)
Ilyin V. V.
National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”
1 Academician Kurchatov Square, 132182 Moscow, Russia


A person is endowed with freedom but also it comes with responsibility. In archaic deontology, the relation of the two existential pillars was embodied in the approval of the Almighty, which is a factor deterring personal will. “There is no offense on earth without vengeance” - this presumption (when the highest power intervenes) curbs arbitrariness. Modern deontological view breaks with the caveman past; reconciliation of freedom and responsibility in the present-day axiology is the exaggeration of the voluntary decision: predetermining freedom of choice of autonomous reflection, marrying the goals of the action with the means of achieving them and the achieved results. On this basis, good deeds are considered as one’s merit and bad deeds as one’s guilt.


  • • value world
  • • practical syllogism
  • • free rational choice


  1. Aristotle. Soch. v 4 t. [Works in 4 volumes]. Moscow: Mysl', 1983. Vol. 4.
  2. Il'in V. V. Filosofiya gumanitarnogo znaniya. Studia humaniora. Gumanitaristika [Philosophy of liberal arts. Studia humaniora. Liberal studies]. Moscow: Prospekt, 2019.
  3. Lavrov P. L. Izbrannye proizvedeniya v 2 t. [Selected works in 2 volumes]. Moscow: Mysl', 1965. Vol. 2.
  4. Roerich H. I., Rerich N. K. Zhivaya etika [Living ethics]. Moscow: Respublika, 1992.
  5. Homans G. C. Social behavior: Its elementary forms. N. Y.: Harcourt, 1961.
  6. Weber M. Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Wissenschaftslehre. Tübingen: mohr, 1951.