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On the principles of the formation of spheres of existence in the formal ontology of R. Ingarden

Liberal Arts in Russia. 2019. Vol. 8. No. 1. Pp. 24-33.
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Shtykov D. R.
Moscow State University
27/4 Lomonosovsky Avenue, 119192 Moscow, Russia


The article is devoted to the analysis of the question of regions of existence and their structure on the material of R. Ingarden’s formal ontology. For this purpose, the main principles underlying the formation of various domains of objects are considered: genus unity and existential connectedness. The following questions are also considered: what are the elements of the realm of being? What conditions must be fulfilled for attribution of many individual items to a specific region? What explains the unity of a region? What determines its boundaries? How are the spheres of being connected? The result of the study is Ingarden’s conclusion that the world includes independent and irreducible regions that are not reducible to any one subject area, that reality is inherently multi-layered, that the world is a set of independent elements interconnected by real causal relationships. This conclusion is especially topical in the context of Ingarden’s controversy with Husserl on the question of the existential status of the real world and the way of its existence. According to Ingarden, Husserl disregarded several formal principles that are important for the structure of the subject regions and unreasonably reduced whole real being together with the ideal one to intentional existence. Ingarden, on the contrary, tried to show the realms of real and ideal being as interconnected phenomena and did not reduce one to the other.


  • • realm of being
  • • the highest material genus
  • • constitutive nature
  • • genus unity
  • • existential connectedness


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