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Historical science in the context of changing paradigms of social and cultural knowledge

Liberal Arts in Russia. 2015. Vol. 4. No. 5. Pp. 381-388.
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Frolova I. V.
Bashkir Academy of Public Service and Administration the President of Bashkortostan Republic
40 Validi St., 450008 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia
Elinson M. A.
Bashkir State University
32 Validi St., 450074 Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia


History, as a science, has been developing in the context of a concrete epoch of scientific paradigms and types of scientific rationality. The period of constitutionalization of social and humanitarian knowledge and history refers to the middle of the 20th century, to the epoch of a triumphal approach of positivism. The formation of a “classical” historical science was connected with the fact, that history was not considered to be an art any more (as it was used to be since ancient time). It was proclaimed, that history should be based on natural sciences, dealing with real facts. The review of a “classical” scientific paradigm of history was stated in the 19th-20th centuries and it was connected with the confirmation of a principal difference between social, humanitarian and scientific knowledge. The discussion of the method and the language of science took the central place. Nonclassical paradigm of social and humanitarian science began to form. At this period, it develops the concept of “humanitarian story”. At the end of the 20th century, the historical science entered postclassical period. This circumstance was accompanied by new methodological approaches with the basis on social and philosophical discourse. Integrative paradigm in history, which is based on the principle of additionality, has been forming. Within this paradigm, history becomes stereoscopic acquiring the character of “social and humanitarian” history.


  • • historical science
  • • paradigms of social and cultural knowledge
  • • social history
  • • humanitarian history
  • • social and humanitarian history


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